I shot an elephant in my pyjamas this morning… Dr. Livingstone I. Presume

NPG Ax18286; Sir Samuel White Baker by Henry Joseph Whitlock

The Perfect Victorian hero : The Life and Times of Sir Samuel White Baker Edinburgh : Mainstream, 1982  Michael Brander Samuel White Baker Hardcover. 1st. ed. and printing. 184 p., maps on endpages, 24 cm. Includes bibliographical information and index. Clean, tight and strong binding with clean dust jacket. No highlighting, underlining or marginalia in text. VG/VG

Samuel White Baker was an English explorer born in London on the 8th of June 1821.  After two years in Mauritius the desire for travel took him in 1846 to Ceylon, where in the following year he founded an agricultural settlement at Nuwara Eliya, a mountain health-resort. Aided by his brother, he brought emigrants from England, together with choice breeds of cattle, and before long the new settlement was a success. During his residence in Ceylon he published The Rifle and the Hound in Ceylon (1853), and two years later Eight Years’ Wanderings in Ceylon (1855).

NPG x157; Sir Samuel White Baker by Maull & Co

After a journey to Constantinople and the Crimea in 1856, he found an outlet for his restless energy by undertaking the supervision of the construction of a railway across the Dobrudja, connecting the Danube with the Black Sea. After its completion he spent some months in a tour in south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor.  In March 1861 he started upon his first tour of exploration in central Africa. This, in his own words, was undertaken “to discover the sources of the Nile, with the hope of meeting the East African expedition under Captains Speke and Grant somewhere about the Victoria Lake.”

After a year spent on the Sudan-Abyssinian border, during which time he learnt Arabic, explored the Atbara and other Nile tributaries, and proved that the Nile sediment came from Abyssinia, he arrived at Khartum, leaving that city in December 1862 to follow up the course of the White Nile. Two months later at Gondokoro he met Speke and Grant, who, after discovering the source of the Nile, were following the river to Egypt. Their success made him fear that there was nothing left for his own expedition to accomplish; but the two explorers generously gave him information which enabled him, after separating from them, to achieve the discovery of Albert Nyanza, of whose existence credible assurance had already been given to Speke and Grant.

NPG x369; Sir Samuel White Baker by Maull & Co

Baker first sighted the lake on the 14th of March 1864. After some time spent in the exploration, during which Baker demonstrated that the Nile flowed through the Albert Nyanza he started upon his return journey, and reached Khartum in May 1865. In the following October he returned to England and in recognition of the achievements by which Baker had linked his name with the solution of the problem of the Nile sources, the Royal Geographical Society awarded him its gold medal, and a similar distinction was bestowed on him by the Paris Geographical Society. In August 1866 he was knighted. In the same year he published The Albert N’yanza, Great Basin of the Nile, and Explorations of the Nile Sources, and in 1867 The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, both books quickly going through several editions.

In 1868 he published a popular story called Cast up by the Sea. In 1869 he attended the prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward VII., in a tour through Egypt. In the same year, at the request of the khedive Ismail, Baker undertook the command of a military expedition to the equatorial regions of the Nile to suppress the slave-trade there. Before starting from Cairo with a force of 1700 Egyptian troops – many of them discharged convicts – he was given the rank of pasha and major-general in the Ottoman army. The khedive appointed him governor-general of the new territory for four years at a salary of 10,000 Pounds a year; and it was not until the expiration of that time that Baker returned to Cairo, leaving his work to be carried on by the new governor, Colonel Charles George Gordon.

NPG x8353; Sir Samuel White Baker by Maull & Co

He had to contend with innumerable difficulties – the blocking of the river by sand, the bitter hostility of officials interested in the slave-trade, the armed opposition of the natives – but he succeeded. He returned to England  in 1874, and in the following year purchased the estate of Sandford Orleigh in South Devon, where he made his home for the rest of his life. He published his narrative of the central African expedition under the title of Ismailia (1874). Cyprus as I saw it in 1879 was the result of a visit to that island. He spent several winters in Egypt, and travelled in India, the Rocky Mountains and Japan in search of big game, publishing in 1890 Wild Beasts and their Ways. He kept up a correspondence strongly opposing the abandonment of the Sudan and subsequently urging its reconquest. Next to these, questions of maritime defence and strategy chiefly attracted him in his later years. He died at Sandford Orleigh on the 30th of December 1893.
NPG x159; Sir Samuel White Baker by Lock & Whitfield, published by  Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington

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