Then king Darius wrote unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto you.


In 516 B.C. Darius launched a campaign that would net the Persian empire territory well into the Indus Valley that helped secure his acquisition of Egypt after having earlier defeated the armies of Pharaoh. Like the Battle of Moscow this engagement had only minimal impact on the West. In fact some would argue that if the Greeks had not sent help to the Ionian revolt that Darius might not have driven west with a punitive expedition to subjugate them ten years later. The same sort of arguments may apply to the battle of Moscow.

Although the political establishments in the west may have been dedicated to replacing republican values with socialist ones – seeing them as an extension of “evolving” man – the general populace suffered from no such delusions. Through their religious – primarily Christian – institutions they still knew communism to be equally as Godless as fascism and would have been contented to watch Hitler and Stalin beat one another to exhaustion over the steppes of Russia.

Unfortunately Stalin had the better contacts – both in the United States with Henry Wallace and his cadre and in England where his allies permeated the establishment – and so we saved the Soviets only to see them perched on their haunches waiting to pounce on us for the next half century. Nor has it ended for a new Darius sits in the east waiting to come west and the longer we equivocate the easier it will be.

The greatest battle: Stalin, Hitler, and the desperate struggle for Moscow that changed the course of World War II New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007      Andrew Nagorski Moscow, Battle of, Moscow, Russia, 1941-1942 Hardcover. 1st. ed. and printing. xiii, 366 p., [16] p. of plates: ill., maps; 25 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 317-346) and index. Clean, tight and strong binding with clean dust jacket. No highlighting, underlining or marginalia in  text. VG/VG

The battle for Moscow was the biggest battle of World War II and yet it is far less known than Stalingrad, which involved about half the number of troops. From the time Hitler launched his assault on Moscow on September 30, 1941, to April 20, 1942, seven million troops were engaged in this titanic struggle. The combined losses of both sides – those killed, taken prisoner or severely wounded – were 2.5 million, of which nearly 2 million were on the Soviet side. But the Soviet capital narrowly survived, and for the first time the German Blitzkrieg ended in failure. This shattered Hitler’s dream of a swift victory over the Soviet Union and radically changed the course of the war.

The full story of this epic battle has never been told because it undermines the sanitized Soviet accounts of the war, which portray Stalin as a military genius and his people as heroically united against the German invader. Stalin’s blunders, incompetence and brutality made it possible for German troops to approach the outskirts of Moscow. This triggered panic in the city – with looting, strikes and outbreaks of previously unimaginable violence. About half the city’s population fled. But Hitler’s blunders would soon loom even larger: sending his troops to attack the Soviet Union without winter uniforms, insisting on an immediate German reign of terror and refusing to heed his generals’ pleas that he allow them to attack Moscow as quickly as possible. In the end, Hitler’s mistakes trumped Stalin’s mistakes.

Drawing on recently declassified documents from Soviet archives, including files of the NKVD; on accounts of survivors and of children of top Soviet military and government officials; and on reports of Western diplomats and correspondents, The Greatest Battle finally illuminates the full story of a clash between two systems based on sheer terror and relentless slaughter. Even as Moscow’s fate hung in the balance, the United States and Britain were discovering how wily a partner Stalin would turn out to be in the fight against Hitler – and how eager he was to push his demands for a postwar empire in Eastern Europe. In addition to chronicling the bloodshed, Andrew Nagorski takes the reader behind the scenes of the early negotiations between Hitler and Stalin, and then between Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill.

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